Emergency advice

Drowning adult:

  1. Call 999.
  2. Give 5 breaths.
  3. Then 30 compressions and 2 breaths. 
  4. Repeat 30:2 until help arrives.
  5. If responsive treat for hypothermia.

What is drowning?

Drowning is when someone has difficulty breathing because their nose and mouth are submerged in a liquid. When someone's drowning, it may not always look like the distressed call for help that most people expect from watching TV. They may go unnoticed, even if friends or family are nearby.

What to do

  1. Do not put yourself in danger when trying to rescue a casualty.

  2. When the casualty is rescued from the water, you should first perform a primary survey. If this establishes that they are unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator, if available.

    • If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so you can start CPR while speaking to ambulance control.
    • Do not leave the casualty to look for a defibrillator yourself, the ambulance will bring one.
  3. Start CPR by first giving them five rescue breaths. To do this, open the airway by placing one hand on the forehead to tilt the head back and use two fingers from the other hand to lift the chin. Only pick out any visible obstructions from the mouth and nose.

  4. Take the hand from the forehead and pinch the soft part of the nose closed. Allow the mouth to fall open. With the head still tilted, take a breath in and place your mouth over the casualty’s forming a seal. Blow into their mouth for one second, until the chest rises. Take your mouth away and watch the chest fall. Do this five times.

    • If the chest doesn’t rise, check the airway is open.
  5. Give 30 chest compressions. Kneel by the casualty and put the heel of your hand in the middle of their chest. Put your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers making sure they don't touch the ribs. Keep your arms straight and lean over the casualty. Press down hard, to a depth of about 5-6cm before releasing the pressure, allowing the chest to come back up. 

    Do this 30 times at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute.

    • The beat of the song ‘Staying Alive’ can help you keep the right rate.
  6. After 30 compressions, you need to give two rescue breaths. Continue to perform CPR, alternating 30 chest compressions with two rescue breaths, (30:2) until:  

    • emergency help arrives and takes over  
    • the person starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • you are too exhausted to continue (if there is a helper, you can change over every one-to-two minutes, with minimal interruptions to chest compressions)
    • or a defibrillator is ready to be used (if the helper returns with a defibrillator, ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR).
  7. Beware, many casualties that drown may bring up stomach contents, so be prepared to roll them onto their side to clear their airway.

  8. If the casualty shows signs of becoming responsive such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. You may also need to treat them for hypothermia covering them with warm clothes and blankets. If possible, replace the wet clothes with dry clothes.

  9. Monitor the casualty's level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

    • If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.
Did you find this information helpful?

Related first aid advice

How to do the primary survey

Use the primary survey to quickly assess the situation and check the casualty for injuries or conditions that could be immediately life threatening. Find out what to do.

How to do CPR on an adult

If an adult is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you need to call 999 or 112 for emergency help and start CPR straight away. Learn what to do.


Hypothermia can become life-threatening quickly, so it’s important to treat someone with hypothermia straight away.  Find out what to look for and what to do.

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